Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe with Sweet Potatoes – Extraordinary Flavor!

By electricdiet / March 6, 2021


Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe with Sweet Potatoes Unbelievably Simple & Flavorful!

This easy crawfish bisque recipe pops up as one of Holly’s most requested best crawfish soup recipes.  This amazing easy crawfish recipe made the list of  easy crawfish recipe favorites. A simple soup with crawfish, sweet potatoes, seasonings, molasses and curry makes an unbeatable combination. A touch of sweetness and heat. Everyone raves about this delicious creamy, crawfish soup recipe from Holly Clegg’s trim&TERRIFIC Gulf Coast Favorites cookbook and it tops healthy Cajun recipes!

Crawfish Sweet Potato Bisque

Louisiana Crawfish Is Healthy and Great To Use in Recipes

You don’t need to give up Louisiana crawfish recipes to eat healthy. In fact, did you know Louisiana crawfish is healthy?  This crawfish bisque is made differently than the traditional recipe with crawfish stuffed heads in a gumbo-base soup.  You’ll find the flavor extraordinary and this one pot soup simple to make. This savory, sensational soup is also a diabetic crawfish bisque recipe!  Cooking healthy includes all your favorite Louisiana recipes.

Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe Options

This easy crawfish bisque recipe has lots of versatility to fit your family.  You can use fresh or frozen crawfish tails. Look for a package of Louisiana crawfish tails in your seafood market or freezer section.  If you aren’t from Louisiana, you might think we actually sit there and peel the crawfish to get the tail meat. Look for Louisiana crawfish tails as crawfish outside of the United States are not up to our standards!  Now, sometimes after a crawfish boil, someone helps peel extra crawfish tails for us. Those are the best!

Diabetic Crawfish Bisque Recipe

This satisfying sweet potato based soup with a hint of sweetness and touch of curry highlights Louisiana crawfish with a pleasing, unbeatable flavor. Best of all, it is a diabetic crawfish recipe.  Holly specializes in healthy Cajun recipes and even have the most popular healthy Crawfish Etouffee recipe ever! Sweet potatoes boost the flavor but also the nutritional value of this crawfish soup. This creamy crawfish bisque recipe is a source of fiber and low in calories. This recipe and so many others you’ll find in Holly Clegg’s Gulf Coast Favorites Cookbook.

CRAWFISH AND SWEET POTATO BISQUE
This satisfying sweet potato based soup with a hint of sweetness and touch of curry highlights crawfish with a pleasing and unbeatable flavor.

    Ingredients

    • 1tablespoon


      olive oil

    • 1cup


      chopped onion

    • 1cup


      chopped green bell pepper

    • 1cup


      chopped celery

    • 1teaspoon


      minced garlic

    • 1/3cup


      all-purpose flour

    • 1/8cup


      molasses

    • 1/2teaspoon


      ground curry powder

    • 4cups


      fat-free chicken broth

    • 1cup


      can sweet potatoesdrained, or 1fresh sweet potatoes, cooked, mashed, 15-ounce

    • 1/2cup


      fat-free Half & Half

    • 1pound


      Louisiana crawfish tailsdrained and rinsed (love this expandable colander)



    • Hot sauce to taste



    • salt and pepper to taste

    Instructions
    1. In a large nonstick pot coated with nonstick cooking spray, heat oil, sauté onion, green pepper, celery, and garlic until tender for about 7-10 minutes.

    2. Stir in flour, stir one minute and add molasses, curry, chicken broth, and sweet potatoes. Bring to a boil.

    3. Reduce heat and cook 10-15 minutes and stir occasionally. Add Half & Half and crawfish, hot sauce and season to taste. Continue cooking 5 more minutes or until heated thoroughly

    Recipe Notes

    Nutritional information: Calories 189, Calories from fat (%) 13, Fat (g) 3, Saturated Fat (g) 0, Cholesterol (mg) 78, Sodium (mg) 300, Carbohydrate (g) 27, Dietary Fiber (g) 3, Sugars (g) 8, Protein (g) 14, Diabetic Exchanges: 1 1/2 starch, 1 1/2 very lean meat

    Terrific Tip: Bisque is a thick, creamy, rich soup and don’t let the name intimidate you. I can’t wait for you to try my easy crawfish bisque recipe.

    Gulf  Coast Favorites Best Healthy Louisiana Cookbook With Easy Crawfish Recipes

    You can enjoy our wonderful Cajun recipes wherever you live.  In Holly Clegg’s Gulf Coast Favorites cookbook, you’ll find all your favorite healthy Cajun recipes and especially the best crawfish recipes!

    This healthy Cajun cookbook includes all your favorites from Holly’s famous Crawfish King Cake to the popular Chicken and Sausage Gumbo. Also, the book includes simple southern recipes like Red Velvet Cake or Pecan Pie.  Best of all, the recipes are healthier! Each recipe includes nutritional information.  Louisiana food can be good for you and Holly proves it in her easy Louisiana cookbook. Start cooking my healthy Cajun recipes with everyday ingredients wherever you live!  Check out more of Louisiana crawfish recipes. 

    Rinse and Drain Crawfish Tails!  You’ll Love This Colander!

    Why is this colander so great? You will absolutely love these expandable colanders for several reasons. First, these colanders are easy storage. Second, they don’t take up much space. People say all the time they don’t have enough room for all their kitchen gadgets.

    These silicon colanders are lighter and easier to use. Team Holly highly recommends this colander or any expandable colanders for your kitchen. They are dishwasher safe and you will like to have two size options.

    Get All of Holly’s Healthy Easy Cookbooks

    The post Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe with Sweet Potatoes – Extraordinary Flavor! appeared first on The Healthy Cooking Blog.



    Sell Unused Diabetic Strips Today!

    Type 2 Diabetes: Demystifying the Global Epidemic

    By electricdiet / March 4, 2021


    Abstract

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has attained the status of a global pandemic, spreading from affluent industrialized nations to the emerging economies of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. There is significant global variation in susceptibility to T2D, with Pacific Islanders, Asian Indians, and Native Americans being considerably more prone to develop the disorder. Although genetic factors may play a part, the rapidity with which diabetes prevalence has risen among these populations reflects the far-ranging and rapid socioeconomic changes to which they have been exposed over the past few decades. Traditionally, obesity and its correlate, insulin resistance, have been considered the major mediators of T2D risk; however, recent evidence shows that early loss of β-cell function plays an important role in the pathogenesis of T2D, especially in nonobese individuals such as South Asians. Knowledge of the modifiable risk factors of T2D is important, as it forms the basis for designing cost-effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to slow the epidemic in populations at increased risk. Lessons learned from randomized prevention trials need to be implemented with appropriate cultural adaptations, accompanied by empowerment of the community, if the diabetes epidemic is to be slowed or halted.

    Introduction

    The emergence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a global pandemic is one of the major challenges to human health in the 21st century. Long considered a disease of the affluent “Western” countries of Europe and North America, T2D has now spread to every corner of the world. Indeed, there are now more people with diabetes residing in the “emerging” economies than in the industrialized nations (1). In developing nations, the prevalence of diabetes is undoubtedly higher among urban versus rural populations (2), although it is also rapidly increasing in rural areas (3). A systematic review based on 109 population-based surveys involving 1,100,746 individuals reported that the global rural diabetes prevalence was 5.7% during 1985–1989, which increased to 8.7% during 2005–2011 (3). Diabetes is also more prevalent among the affluent in developing countries, in contrast to developed nations, where the prevalence of both T2D and obesity are higher among the poorer sections of society (4,5).

    The reasons for the rapid spread of T2D to hitherto less affected parts of the world can be explained by a number of interrelated factors, some of which have not yet been fully characterized. Study of these factors will help in better understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and in planning efforts for its prevention. There are excellent reviews on diabetes in Asians (6,7); in this Perspective we look at some of the established and emerging factors that have led to the globalization of the diabetes epidemic over the past half century, with a major focus on developing nations.

    Epidemiology of Diabetes—Truly a Global Pandemic

    The latest figures from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) indicate that as of 2015 more than 415 million people worldwide have diabetes (1). This number is expected to increase to 642 million by 2040. China and India have the largest numbers of people with diabetes (109.6 million and 69.2 million, respectively). However, the highest prevalence rates of diabetes are found in the Pacific Islands and the Middle East. A major concern today is the increasing numbers of people with T2D in low- and middle-income countries (8). Among the IDF regions, the Western Pacific has the highest number of people with diabetes (with China contributing the lion’s share), followed by the Southeast Asian region. Currently, the lowest numbers are found in South and Central America and Africa (Fig. 1) (1,9). However, it has been estimated that by 2040 the number of people with diabetes will increase by 65% in South and Central America and double in sub-Saharan Africa (1). It should be remembered that these figures often hide large inter- and intracountry differences and that little or no data regarding diabetes prevalence are available from many countries (especially in Africa, where it is estimated that more than 65% of individuals with diabetes remain undiagnosed) (10). Nonetheless, it is abundantly clear that the diabetes epidemic is no longer confined to the affluent nations of Europe and North America.

    Figure 1
    Figure 1

    Rising prevalence of diabetes in IDF regions, 2000–2015 (1,9).

    Ethnic Differences in Susceptibility to Diabetes

    Studies conducted in multiethnic populations of different countries have shown that individuals of certain ethnicities are more prone to develop T2D. Furthermore, migration to developed countries has also been shown to be associated with a higher T2D risk. For example, Asian Indian immigrants have a higher prevalence of T2D than the white U.S. population and Europeans (11,12). A study conducted in Ontario, Canada, reported that, compared with immigrants from western Europe and North America, the risk for diabetes was higher among immigrants from South Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa, even after controlling for age, immigration category, level of education, level of income, and time since arrival. More worrisome was the fact that this increased risk for diabetes started at an early age (11). It is also well known that South Asians develop diabetes at younger ages and also tend to progress much faster from prediabetes to diabetes as compared with white Caucasians of comparable BMI (12,13).

    Although few data are available on diabetes incidence, urban areas of low- and middle-income countries such as India and Mexico have been shown to have the highest incidence rates (14). While the incidence rates of T2D have stabilized in the U.S. over the past decade, this does not hold true for all ethnic groups. The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE), a large prospective cohort study, assessed the incidence of T2D according to race/ethnicity in the U.S. among health plan members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. This study reported that Koreans, Pacific Islanders, South Asians, and Filipinos had the highest incidence (20.3, 19.9, 17.2, and 14.7 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively) of diabetes among all racial/ethnic groups (15). Even though these figures may reflect true ethnic differences in susceptibility, the possibility of environmental factors (such as high dietary carbohydrate loads and low levels of physical activity, among others) acting in concert with ethnicity should also be considered.

    Mechanistic Explanations for the Development of Diabetes in Emerging Nations

    T2D is characterized by varying degrees of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in the presence of suboptimal insulin action (insulin resistance). The relative contribution of these two pathophysiological mechanisms to the development of diabetes varies from individual to individual and may also differ between ethnic groups. In addition, there may be perturbations in other hormonal systems (e.g., the incretin axis) that predispose individuals to the development of chronic hyperglycemia, but these alterations are, as yet, poorly characterized.

    Studies on differential susceptibility of non-Caucasian ethnic groups to T2D have traditionally focused on the role of obesity and insulin resistance. A classic example is the Pima Indians in the U.S., in whom high levels of obesity and insulin resistance have been associated with some of the highest prevalence rates of T2D in the world (16). Similarly, obesity-driven reductions in insulin sensitivity appear to underlie the dramatic increase in diabetes prevalence seen in Pacific Island populations (17). However, the relationship between excess adiposity, insulin resistance, and T2D among other ethnic groups is not as straightforward. For any level of BMI, Asian Indians have higher waist circumference, more visceral fat, and lower insulin sensitivity compared with white Caucasians (the “thin-fat” Indian) (18).

    Whereas the focus of earlier studies was on insulin resistance, there is an increasing focus on the β-cell. In his brilliant Kelly West Award Lecture, Venkat Narayan eloquently argues that rapid pancreatic β-cell loss may be equally if not more important in some populations, such as Asian Indians (19). He makes a compelling argument comparing two “Indians” with contrasting phenotypes: the Pima Indians in Arizona, who are obese, markedly insulin resistant, and hyperinsulinemic, in contrast to Asian Indians, who are relatively thin and most severely insulinopenic. Narayan hypothesizes that there could be two distinct subtypes of T2D: the Pima Indian–like phenotype that he calls “type 2A,” characterized by marked obesity, insulin resistance, and relatively better preserved β-cell function, and the Asian Indian–type phenotype called “type 2B,” characterized by a leaner body mass and more severe β-cell dysfunction. It is thus entirely plausible that treatment approaches may differ in the two subtypes, with insulin sensitizers being the prominent drugs in the former and insulin secretagogues being the main drug in the latter. However, further research is needed before this hypothesis can be evaluated with treatment approaches and/or used in clinical practice. Specifically, β-cell function studies comparing lean versus obese individuals with T2D are needed, as are randomized clinical trials comparing the effects of secretagogues with those of sensitizers in lean versus obese patients with T2D.

    Unfortunately, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction has not been as extensively studied as insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of T2D. Although it is evident that some degree of β-cell secretory deficiency is essential for the development of T2D, the fact that the insulin secretory defect occurs earlier, and is more severe, in T2D is getting increasing attention. It has been shown, for example, that by the time an individual’s blood glucose levels cross the thresholds diagnostic of diabetes, nearly 80% of the β-cell reserve has been lost (20). In that study, β-cell function was measured using the gold standard, i.e., the insulin secretion/insulin resistance index, or the so-called disposition index (DIo) [DIo = (Δinsulin0–30/Δglucose0–30) × (1/fasting insulin)].

    It is likely that β-cell dysfunction may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of T2D in populations or subgroups where the prevalence of T2D is high but the BMI is low (19). Indeed, studies have shown that β-cell function may decline very early in the natural history of T2D among South Asians. In a cross-sectional study of South Asian Indians with different glycemic statuses, β-cell function measured using DIo was shown to be impaired even among those with mild dysglycemia (e.g., fasting glucose 100–126 mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose 140–199 mg/dL), independent of age, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and family history of diabetes (21). The Whitehall II cohort study conducted by Ikehara et al. (22) in the U.K. among South Asian and white participants aged 39–79 years reported that South Asians may have inadequate pancreatic β-cell reserve, as a significantly steeper age-related increase in fasting glucose was observed compared with Europeans. In this study, HOMA β-cell function (HOMA2 %B, a marker of insulin secretion) was calculated with the HOMA2 calculator using fasting glucose and fasting insulin values. It was concluded that although Asian Indians had significantly higher levels of plasma insulin at younger ages, their β-cells were unable to further increase insulin output in response to age-related decreases in insulin sensitivity.

    Another study conducted in the Netherlands investigated β-cell function (calculated using area under the curve for incremental insulin secretion rates and DIo) and insulin sensitivity simultaneously in South Asian and Caucasian patients with T2D and their first-degree relatives. This study suggested that in South Asian individuals, rapid β-cell deterioration might occur under insulin-resistant conditions, and the alterations in β-cell dynamics may explain their earlier onset of T2D compared with Caucasians (23).

    Schwartz et al. (24) have recently called for a reclassification of diabetes with a greater β-cell–centric approach. The β-cell–centric model presupposes that all diabetes originates from a final common denominator—the abnormal pancreatic β-cell. This model recognizes the interactions between genetically predisposed β-cells and a number of factors, which include insulin resistance, susceptibility to environmental influences, and immune dysregulation/inflammation, leading to the range of hyperglycemic phenotypes within the spectrum of T2D.

    T2d: An Inevitable Consequence of Prosperity?

    The most marked increases in the prevalence of diabetes have been noted in those countries that have experienced rapid economic growth, transitioning from low-income to high-income economies over a short period of time. Perhaps the most extreme example of this can be found in the tiny Pacific Island nation of Nauru. In the 1960s, exploitation of the island’s vast phosphate resources led to an economic boom and widespread prosperity for the islanders. This change was accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of T2D from near zero in the early 1960s to nearly 35% by the 1970s (25). Subsequently, as the phosphate deposits ran out, national income fell, and latest figures indicate that the prevalence rates of obesity and T2D are also declining (26).

    Similar (albeit less marked) transitions also underlie the epidemic of diabetes in China, India, Mauritius, Fiji, and the Middle East. In all these countries, rapid economic development has been accompanied by lower mortality from communicable diseases and improvements in life expectancy. The populations of these countries are older than they were a couple of decades ago, which makes them prone to develop age-related noncommunicable diseases such as T2D. Indeed, a recent study by Gujral et al. (27) showed that in contrast to the situation a couple of decades ago, when migrant Asian Indians had two- to threefold higher rates of diabetes compared with Indians living in India, Indians living in urban India today have prevalence rates of diabetes higher than migrant Indians in the U.S. (27). The epidemic of diabetes in these countries can therefore be partly explained as an inevitable upshot of economic development. India, for example, underwent a dramatic change in its economic policies in 1991 leading to an opening up of its economy and a sharp increase in its gross domestic product.

    Do Genetic Factors Underlie the Epidemic?

    T2D has a strong familial component. Also, the marked predilection of certain ethnic groups (e.g., Pima Indians, Pacific Islanders) to T2D raises the possibility of heightened genetic susceptibility to the disease among them. However, efforts to pinpoint the genetic etiology of T2D have proved frustratingly inconclusive. The current consensus is that T2D is a polygenic disorder, with multiple susceptibility genes, each with a small effect size on the overall risk of developing the disease. Studies have failed to substantiate a greater genetic risk of T2D in Asians compared with white Caucasians (28), with the majority of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified having similar risk estimates and population burden in white Caucasians and Asians. Fuchsberger et al. (29) reported that although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified scores of common variants associated with T2D, in aggregate those variants explain only a fraction of the heritability of the disorder. The Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes (GoT2D) and the Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Next-generation sequencing in multi-Ethnic Samples (T2D-GENES) consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. The group concluded that variants associated with T2D were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by GWAS. Thus, large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to T2D. Although some unique genes have been identified in South Asians by GWAS (30,31), their effect sizes were low. Hence, it is highly unlikely that genetic factors are responsible for the current epidemic of diabetes. Moreover, the genetic makeup of a population cannot change in the course of two or three generations, which is the time frame in which the prevalence rates of diabetes have increased multifold in these populations.

    The elegant studies of Yajnik and colleagues from Pune, India (32,33), with painstaking follow-up of cohorts from the prepregnancy stage through the pregnancy and subsequent follow-up of offspring until adulthood, provide strong evidence for the link between intrauterine programming, lower birth weight, and subsequent catch-up growth and insulin resistance and T2D in Asian Indians.

    In recent years, many studies have indicated that epigenetic modifications play a critical role in the development and pathogenesis of chronic disorders such as T2D (Fig. 2). Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function without any changes in the nucleotide sequence. The important epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA–mediated pathways. DNA methylation results in gene silencing, while histone modification results in promotion or repression of gene transcription. Noncoding RNA (microRNA, miRNA) is believed to have a role in gene expression. Many environmental factors are known to cause changes in gene expression through epigenetic modifications such as altered DNA methylation or histone modification.

    Figure 2
    Figure 2

    Schematic presentation of the interplay of mechanisms involved in development of T2D.

    A recent nested case-control study (London Life Sciences Prospective Population [LOLIPOP] Study) assessed DNA methylation in Asian Indians and Europeans with incident T2D among 25,372 participants who were followed up for 8 years (34). The study reported that methylation markers at five loci (ABCG1, PHOSPHO1, SOCS3, SREBF1, and TXNIP) were associated with future incident T2D. The association of DNA methylation score with risk of T2D was also observed in normoglycemic Indian Asians, among whom high levels of methylation in metabolically unhealthy obese individuals were associated with a high risk of future T2D. This supports the views of Narayan (19) and others that Asian Indians may have an inherent susceptibility to diabetes that is probably linked to heightened β-cell dysfunction. Chambers et al. (34) suggest that DNA methylation might provide new insights into the pathways underlying T2D and offer new opportunities for risk stratification and prevention of T2D.

    Is There a Modifiable (Environmental) Component?

    In many countries, economic development has drastically modified lifestyles over the course of a single generation. The two aspects of this transition that are of most interest to students of diabetes epidemiology are the changes in physical activity levels and food habits. In addition to these changes, novel risk factors, including exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, depression, short sleep duration, and the built environment (BE), have also been shown to be associated with increased diabetes risk (14). Knowledge of these factors is important, as they are eminently modifiable.

    Physical Inactivity

    It is well established that physical inactivity increases the risk of T2D in all ethnic groups (35). Traditionally, occupational physical activity levels are high in developing nations, where most individuals are engaged in unmechanized agricultural activities. Therefore, absence of recreational physical activity did not adversely affect overall physical activity levels in these societies. In recent years, however, industrialization and mechanization have shifted the workforce away from agriculture and into less physically demanding occupations, causing drastic declines in overall physical activity levels. Unfortunately, levels of recreational physical activity are abysmally low in most parts of the developing world and are insufficient to compensate for the decline in occupational physical activity. In India, for example, less than 10% of individuals report doing any recreational physical activity (36).

    A number of studies worldwide have shown that individuals who are active have a lower risk of developing T2D compared with those who are sedentary (37,38). A recent systematic review conducted on three studies pertaining to T2D reported that an increase from being inactive to achieving recommended physical activity levels (150 min of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week) was associated with a 26% lower risk of T2D incidence after adjustment for body weight (38).

    Dietary Factors

    In most parts of the world, economic development has been accompanied by a rapid nutrition transition. The most apparent aspect of this transition has been the wide adoption of Western-style fast foods and sweetened beverages, particularly by the younger generation in urban areas. However, the ramifications of the nutrition transition are far more widespread. Traditionally, diets in most parts of the developed world consisted chiefly of unpolished whole grains as the staple. These diets were rich in fiber and low in refined carbohydrates and hence had a low glycemic index and glycemic load. With increasing affluence and availability of modern food processing technologies, there has been a wholesale shift away from unpolished whole grains to refined polished cereals. Intake of trans fats and sweetened beverages has increased, but that of fiber, fruits, and vegetables has come down (39).

    Dietary patterns characterized by increased intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, low glycemic load, and plant-based diets have been associated with substantially lower risk of developing T2D. In contrast, dietary patterns that include high intakes of refined grains, processed meats, and added sugars and a low-fiber diet have been associated with increased T2D risk. Several studies have assessed the link between cereal intake and risk of developing T2D. Table 1 summarizes the observational studies that have looked at this relationship (4045). The majority of studies have used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is the most common method used to estimate the usual dietary intake of the population and to rank an individual based on his or her dietary intake in order to relate it to chronic disease risk over time. FFQ-based dietary intake pertains to a longer period (usually a year) and is more representative of usual intake than a few days of diet records. However, measurement error with FFQ is inevitable (e.g., recall bias). Another limitation of the FFQ can be its length and the number of food items it includes—it may be limited to 100 or 200 of the most commonly consumed foods. To include all the foods available would further increase the length of the questionnaire, making it take more time, which could cause interviewer and respondent fatigue. Despite these limitations, if an appropriate culturally specific and validated FFQ is used, it can still provide a more realistic picture of dietary intake than the 24-h recall method.

    Table 1

    Studies on refined cereal intake and risk of diabetes

    Studies have suggested that consuming dairy products lowers the risk of developing T2D. The Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) assessed the relation between dairy intake and incident cases of T2D in 41,254 male participants and concluded that dietary patterns characterized by higher dairy intake, especially low-fat dairy intake, may lower the risk of T2D (46).

    Several studies have assessed the association between coffee/tea intake and risk of T2D. A recent study reported that substituting unsweetened tea or coffee for soft drinks and sweetened-milk beverages reduced T2D incidence (47). Table 2 summarizes the current dietary habits and strategies to reduce the global epidemic of diabetes.

    Table 2

    Current dietary habits and suggested strategies to reduce the global diabetes epidemic

    Role of the BE

    Recent studies have shown that development of T2D is also influenced by the BE, which is defined as “the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution” (48). The BE is one of the environmental factors that influences lifestyle and habits of its inhabitants, including opportunities for physical activity, food, rest, relaxation, and sleep. Recently, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of neighborhood walkability on diabetes incidence among 214,882 immigrants relative to 1,024,380 long-term residents who were free of diabetes and living in Toronto, Canada. The study concluded that neighborhood walkability was a strong predictor of diabetes incidence independent of age and income, particularly among recent immigrants. Diabetes incidence varied threefold between recent immigrants living in low-income/low-walkability areas (16.2 per 1,000) and those living in high-income/high-walkability areas (5.1 per 1,000) (49).

    In a community-based study conducted in Chennai in southern India, standard lifestyle advice (e.g., increasing physical activity and improving diet) was provided to the participants at baseline. After a 10-year follow-up, a 277% increase was reported in the exercise levels of residents of a middle-income colony (the Asiad Colony) following the construction of a park by the residents themselves (50). In this colony, the prevalence of diabetes only increased modestly, from 12.4% to 15.4% (i.e., a 24% increase), over a 10-year follow-up period (51). In contrast, during the same period in another colony where no such improvement in BE was made, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 6.5% to 15.3% (a 135% increase). This indicates that a moderate investment of time and effort in improving the BE might help slow the epidemic of diabetes.

    Environmental Pollutants

    Emerging scientific evidence suggests that T2D is associated with environmental pollutants, exposure to which is also abundant in most developing countries. The various environmental exposures that have been shown to be associated with diabetes include persistent organic pollutants (POPs), arsenic, bisphenol A, phthalates, organotins, nonpersistent pesticides, and air pollution. POPs have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and T2D in several studies (52). A recent meta-analysis on association of some organochlorine POPs concluded that hexachlorobenzene and total polychlorinated biphenyls, but not dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, are significantly associated with T2D (53).

    Many studies have assessed the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter (diameter ≤10 μm and diameter ≤2.5 μm) and T2D. The majority of the studies have demonstrated an association between air pollution and diabetes (54,55). However, Dijkema et al. (56), in a cross-sectional study that evaluated exposure to traffic air pollution and T2D, concluded that there was no relationship between the two.

    Role of Lifestyle Modification in the Prevention of Diabetes

    Randomized controlled trials from populations in developed and developing countries have demonstrated that supervised exercise programs, with or without dietary modifications, significantly reduced the incidence of diabetes in high-risk groups by up to 67%. In the Malmö trial (57), a nonrandomized trial conducted in 260 men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), the cumulative incidence of diabetes in the intervention group was found to be 11%, compared with 21% in the control group (after 6 years of follow-up). The first of the randomized trials of lifestyle intervention for prevention of diabetes was the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study (58). In this study, conducted in China, the risk for diabetes in the exercise group was reduced by 46% compared with a control group after 6 years of active intervention. In both the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) (59) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) conducted in the U.S. (60), diet and exercise intervention reduced the incidence of diabetes by 58%. In a Japanese trial conducted in 458 men with prediabetes, intensive lifestyle modification reduced the risk of diabetes by 67% (61).

    The Indian Diabetes Prevention Program (IDPP) reported that after 3 years of follow-up the relative risk reduction for diabetes was 28.5% with lifestyle management, 26.4% with metformin, and 28.2% with combined interventions (62). In IDPP-3, a total of 537 participants were randomly assigned to a mobile phone messaging intervention with frequent SMS text messages or to standard care. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was lower in those who received mobile phone messages (18%) than in control subjects (27%) (63).

    The Zensharen Study for Prevention of Lifestyle Diseases (64), conducted in overweight Japanese individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), reported that lifestyle modifications reduced risk for diabetes by 44.1% among individuals with IFG and by 59% among those with combined IFG and IGT. The 20-year follow-up of participants in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study (DQDPS) (65) reported a risk reduction of diabetes by 43% in the intervention group compared with the control group. The Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program (D-CLIP) was a randomized controlled translational trial that studied 578 overweight/obese Asian Indian adults with prediabetes (IGT or IFG or both). This study used a culturally tailored lifestyle education curriculum based on the U.S. DPP, plus stepwise addition of metformin (500 mg twice daily) (66). During 3 years of follow-up, 34.9% of subjects in the control group and 25.7% in the intervention group developed diabetes; the relative reduction in diabetes incidence was 32%. Figure 3 summarizes the results of various prevention trials.

    Figure 3
    Figure 3

    Evidence for lifestyle intervention and prevention of T2D (5762,6466).

    The Way Forward

    The spread of the diabetes epidemic to the developing world represents a major challenge to public health and health care delivery systems. The sheer number of people with diabetes is likely to put an enormous strain on the health care systems of these countries, many of which are still grappling with communicable diseases. Delayed diagnosis, inadequate follow-up, and suboptimal care of people with diabetes predisposes them to the development of acute and chronic complications, which further increases the treatment cost and places a heavy burden on the individual, society, and the nation. This is all the more true in countries that do not have a robust publicly funded health care system or widespread availability of health insurance. It is all the more worrying that, even in developing countries, the diabetes epidemic is now spreading to the poorer sections of society, who can least afford to pay for its treatment.

    The need of the hour, therefore, is to use our knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of diabetes to design cost-effective strategies to prevent susceptible individuals from developing diabetes. While economic development and the consequent prosperity are unquestionably to be welcomed, the accompanying deleterious changes in lifestyle need to be identified and addressed. Multisectoral efforts are needed to improve physical activity levels and dietary quality in newly developed nations. Improvement of antenatal care and maternal nutrition can be expected to reduce risk of diabetes in the offspring. Cost-effective and validated tools such as Diabetes Risk Scores can be used to identify individuals who are candidates for diabetes screening, ensuring early diagnosis of diabetes in those at the highest risk (67).

    Conclusions

    T2D can no longer be considered a disease of affluence or of developed nations, with more than 60% of all individuals with the disorder residing outside the developed countries. China and India are the two major epicenters of the diabetes epidemic, but sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, and Latin America also have large (and rapidly increasing) numbers of people with diabetes. The increase in prevalence of diabetes is intimately linked to economic development and the subsequent changes in lifestyle that promote an obesogenic environment. Although the link between obesity and T2D is linear, certain ethnic groups (such as Asian Indians) develop T2D at relatively low levels of BMI. Defects in β-cell function, mediated by genetic or early-life influences, may underlie many of these cases of “lean” T2D. A thorough understanding of the etiopathogenesis of diabetes in various ethnic groups is essential to plan the most cost-effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. It is unlikely that “one size” would fit all. When translating the results of international trials to middle- and low-income countries, low-cost, culturally adaptable solutions will have to be used along with community empowerment if the increasing diabetes epidemic is to be halted in its tracks, or at least slowed down. The time to act is now!

    Article Information

    Duality of Interest. No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

    • Received June 24, 2016.
    • Accepted December 29, 2016.



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    10 Low-Carb Dinner Recipes for Diabetics

    By electricdiet / March 2, 2021


    Looking for some healthy meals that taste great and are easy to whip up on a busy weeknight? Try one of these simple low-carb dinner recipes!

    10 Low-Carb Dinner Recipes for Diabetics

    Healthy meals everyone will enjoy

    If you ask me, eating healthy does NOT mean eating bland or boring meals! I firmly believe that a diabetes-friendly diet should be delicious and satisfying.

    That’s why I put together this collection of healthy low-carb dinners. From chicken to beef to seafood, from salads to gumbos to quiches, there is definitely something for every taste on this list. And each one is easy enough that you can make it on a busy weeknight.

    So what makes a good, diabetes-friendly dinner? That answer may look a little different for everyone, but here are the basic guidelines I like to follow.

    First, I look for recipes that are relatively low in carbs, which means less than 20 grams of carbs per serving. I also aim for carbs with a low glycemic index.

    Next, I want to make sure there’s a healthy serving of protein to help you feel full and satisfied. I aim for 20 grams of protein or higher.

    Finally, the best diabetes-friendly low-carb recipes should have some healthy fat. This will round out the meal for a healthy, balanced dinner you’ll truly enjoy eating!

    Delicious low-carb dinner recipes

    If you’re new to the low-carb way of eating, you may be surprised how much variety there is.

    In fact, there are so many delicious dinner options you can try! There’s definitely something for everyone to love on this list.

    With so many amazing options, the hardest part may be deciding which one to try first!

    More healthy low-carb recipe ideas

    Now that you’ve seen how many low-carb options there are for dinner, how about some inspiration for other meals?

    Here are a few of my favorite easy recipes to enjoy throughout the day:

    If you try any of these recipes, don’t forget to leave a comment below and let me know how you liked them!



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    Reuben Pizza – My Bizzy Kitchen

    By electricdiet / February 28, 2021





    Reuben Pizza – My Bizzy Kitchen




































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    Eye Health for People Living With Diabetes

    By electricdiet / February 26, 2021


    I’ve lived with diabetes since 1997 and have made my eyes a priority by seeing my eye care professional (Ophthalmologist) every year for a thorough eye exam.

    I do this because, as someone living with diabetes, I’m at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy which can result in diabetic macular edema.

    7.7 million people in the United States have diabetic retinopathy and it’s the leading cause of blindness in people ages 20 to 74 in the US.

    Diabetic retinopathy treatment options are available, but diabetic retinopathy can lead to serious vision problems and potential blindness if left undetected. I don’t want that to happen to me, and I’m sure you don’t either.

    In this post, I’ll walk you through why it’s so important to get your eyes checked regularly, what my annual eye exam looks like, and what can be done to help protect your eyes should you develop symptoms of diabetic retinopathy.

    This post is sponsored by Regeneron’s Look To Your Future campaign.

    Christel at the eye doctor

    What is diabetic retinopathy and how can you reduce the risk of developing it?

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition where the blood vessels in your eye become damaged due to chronically high blood sugar levels.

    An eye exam is the only way of catching it early and being able to stop the progression. Early detection, timely treatment and appropriate follow-up care can reduce the risk of severe vision loss by 95%.

    While the early stages of diabetic retinopathy may not include any visible symptoms, some signs that you should look out for are:

    • Blurriness in the center of vision
    • Blind spots or patches
    • Straight lines that look wavy
    • Colors that look dull or washed out

    Symptoms can appear in one or both eyes, but could also be a sign of other underlying vision issues, so if you experience any of these symptoms, contact your doctor for an appointment right away.

    Although nearly 1 in 2 people living with diabetes in the United States develop diabetic retinopathy, there are steps you can take to reduce the risk of being diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy.

    Specific things you can do right now to help reduce the risk are:

    • Stop smoking
    • Manage your daily blood sugar levels to the best of your ability and seek help if you’re struggling
    • Discuss your A1c target with your medical team and work towards your goal
    • Manage your blood cholesterol levels
    • Manage your blood pressure
    • Take your medication as directed by your medical team
    • Eat nutritious food, eat quantities in moderation, and exercise regularly to maintain a healthy weight
    • See an eye doctor annually for a comprehensive eye exam and vision test

    My annual visit to the eye doctor

    I’m not good when it comes to anyone touching my eyes (myself included). Even having someone apply mascara to my eyelashes is uncomfortable, so I have some level of anxiety when it comes to my annual eye exams.

    But eye exams are so important, and if you find the right eye doctor, it can be a rather interesting experience (especially if you geek out over the equipment like I do).

    After being checked in at the doctor’s office, my doctor’s assistant checked my eyesight (a Visual Acuity Test). The assistant handed me a mask-like instrument that covers one eye, turned off the light, and asked me to read the letters on a lighted board. That’s pretty straightforward.

    Christel holding a mask for the visual acuity test

    My doctor also did a full vision test this year using a Phoropter. I don’t mind that test either, the only annoyance was that the lenses kept fogging up as I was wearing a mask during the exam.

    Christel sitting behind the Phoropter

    Next, they put drops in my eyes to dilate my pupils so that the eye doctor can examine the retina and measure my eye pressure (Tonometry). I don’t like that part. Not because it hurts (although the drops do sting a little) but because it’s something being done close to my eyes. I told you, I’m weird with this.

    The next step is really easy. You just sit around and wait until your eyes are dilated enough for the doctor to do the exam. I usually bring music or listen to a podcast.

    As your eyes dilate, it becomes hard to focus, so reading a book or doing work on your phone or laptop isn’t really possible. I’ve been told that it can take a little longer for dark eyes like mine to dilate, and sometimes they need to add more drops.

    My eye doctor then has me place my head in something called a Slit Lamp, which is a microscope with a bright light. She then uses small magnifying glasses to examine my eyes. Having a bright light shining into your eye is not the most comfortable thing but my doctor and I will usually chitchat while she does the exam and it’s never as bad as I expect.

    Christel with her head in the Slit Lamp

    She then finished the exam by doing an indirect ophthalmoscopy (and yes, I had to ask her the names of all the different exams). Here she wears an optical instrument on her head and examines the back of my eyes.

    The whole appointment took about an hour and my eyes got the all-clear…

    I usually drive myself to the appointment and then run a few errands or work in a coffee shop after my appointment until the dilation of my eyes has come down enough that I can see clearly and it’s safe to drive home (your eyes are very light sensitive for a while after the dilation and you shouldn’t drive right away.)

    Christel wearing sunglasses after her eye doctor appointment

    This year, things were a little different because of the pandemic and I ended up having to take a taxi back and forth.

    But I still go, and I will continue to do so every year (or more often if needed) because it gives me peace of mind knowing that I don’t have any issues with my eyes and that if anything starts to show up, my doctor will notice and take action.

    What can you do if you develop diabetic retinopathy?

    For many, vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy is irreversible, but the National Eye Institute (NEI) states that early detection, timely treatment and appropriate follow-up care can help reduce your risk of vision loss by 95 percent.

    The three most common ways of treating DR are:

    • Anti-VEGF Medicines
    • Laser Therapy
    • Steroids

    Most of the treatments available aim at stopping the progression of diabetic retinopathy and preserving your vision, which again, is why seeing your eye doctor at least annually is so important for early detection.

    You can find a lot more information about eye health and diabetic retinopathy on LookToYourFuture.com.



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    Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe with Sweet Potatoes – Extraordinary Flavor!

    By electricdiet / February 24, 2021


    Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe with Sweet Potatoes Unbelievably Simple & Flavorful!

    This easy crawfish bisque recipe pops up as one of Holly’s most requested best crawfish soup recipes.  This amazing easy crawfish recipe made the list of  easy crawfish recipe favorites. A simple soup with crawfish, sweet potatoes, seasonings, molasses and curry makes an unbeatable combination. A touch of sweetness and heat. Everyone raves about this delicious creamy, crawfish soup recipe from Holly Clegg’s trim&TERRIFIC Gulf Coast Favorites cookbook and it tops healthy Cajun recipes!

    Crawfish Sweet Potato Bisque

    Louisiana Crawfish Is Healthy and Great To Use in Recipes

    You don’t need to give up Louisiana crawfish recipes to eat healthy. In fact, did you know Louisiana crawfish is healthy?  This crawfish bisque is made differently than the traditional recipe with crawfish stuffed heads in a gumbo-base soup.  You’ll find the flavor extraordinary and this one pot soup simple to make. This savory, sensational soup is also a diabetic crawfish bisque recipe!  Cooking healthy includes all your favorite Louisiana recipes.

    Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe Options

    This easy crawfish bisque recipe has lots of versatility to fit your family.  You can use fresh or frozen crawfish tails. Look for a package of Louisiana crawfish tails in your seafood market or freezer section.  If you aren’t from Louisiana, you might think we actually sit there and peel the crawfish to get the tail meat. Look for Louisiana crawfish tails as crawfish outside of the United States are not up to our standards!  Now, sometimes after a crawfish boil, someone helps peel extra crawfish tails for us. Those are the best!

    Diabetic Crawfish Bisque Recipe

    This satisfying sweet potato based soup with a hint of sweetness and touch of curry highlights Louisiana crawfish with a pleasing, unbeatable flavor. Best of all, it is a diabetic crawfish recipe.  Holly specializes in healthy Cajun recipes and even have the most popular healthy Crawfish Etouffee recipe ever! Sweet potatoes boost the flavor but also the nutritional value of this crawfish soup. This creamy crawfish bisque recipe is a source of fiber and low in calories. This recipe and so many others you’ll find in Holly Clegg’s Gulf Coast Favorites Cookbook.

    CRAWFISH AND SWEET POTATO BISQUE
    This satisfying sweet potato based soup with a hint of sweetness and touch of curry highlights crawfish with a pleasing and unbeatable flavor.

      Ingredients

      • 1tablespoon


        olive oil

      • 1cup


        chopped onion

      • 1cup


        chopped green bell pepper

      • 1cup


        chopped celery

      • 1teaspoon


        minced garlic

      • 1/3cup


        all-purpose flour

      • 1/8cup


        molasses

      • 1/2teaspoon


        ground curry powder

      • 4cups


        fat-free chicken broth

      • 1cup


        can sweet potatoesdrained, or 1fresh sweet potatoes, cooked, mashed, 15-ounce

      • 1/2cup


        fat-free Half & Half

      • 1pound


        Louisiana crawfish tailsdrained and rinsed (love this expandable colander)



      • Hot sauce to taste



      • salt and pepper to taste

      Instructions
      1. In a large nonstick pot coated with nonstick cooking spray, heat oil, sauté onion, green pepper, celery, and garlic until tender for about 7-10 minutes.

      2. Stir in flour, stir one minute and add molasses, curry, chicken broth, and sweet potatoes. Bring to a boil.

      3. Reduce heat and cook 10-15 minutes and stir occasionally. Add Half & Half and crawfish, hot sauce and season to taste. Continue cooking 5 more minutes or until heated thoroughly

      Recipe Notes

      Nutritional information: Calories 189, Calories from fat (%) 13, Fat (g) 3, Saturated Fat (g) 0, Cholesterol (mg) 78, Sodium (mg) 300, Carbohydrate (g) 27, Dietary Fiber (g) 3, Sugars (g) 8, Protein (g) 14, Diabetic Exchanges: 1 1/2 starch, 1 1/2 very lean meat

      Terrific Tip: Bisque is a thick, creamy, rich soup and don’t let the name intimidate you. I can’t wait for you to try my easy crawfish bisque recipe.

      Gulf  Coast Favorites Best Healthy Louisiana Cookbook With Easy Crawfish Recipes

      You can enjoy our wonderful Cajun recipes wherever you live.  In Holly Clegg’s Gulf Coast Favorites cookbook, you’ll find all your favorite healthy Cajun recipes and especially the best crawfish recipes!

      This healthy Cajun cookbook includes all your favorites from Holly’s famous Crawfish King Cake to the popular Chicken and Sausage Gumbo. Also, the book includes simple southern recipes like Red Velvet Cake or Pecan Pie.  Best of all, the recipes are healthier! Each recipe includes nutritional information.  Louisiana food can be good for you and Holly proves it in her easy Louisiana cookbook. Start cooking my healthy Cajun recipes with everyday ingredients wherever you live!  Check out more of Louisiana crawfish recipes. 

      Rinse and Drain Crawfish Tails!  You’ll Love This Colander!

      Why is this colander so great? You will absolutely love these expandable colanders for several reasons. First, these colanders are easy storage. Second, they don’t take up much space. People say all the time they don’t have enough room for all their kitchen gadgets.

      These silicon colanders are lighter and easier to use. Team Holly highly recommends this colander or any expandable colanders for your kitchen. They are dishwasher safe and you will like to have two size options.

      Get All of Holly’s Healthy Easy Cookbooks

      The post Easy Crawfish Bisque Recipe with Sweet Potatoes – Extraordinary Flavor! appeared first on The Healthy Cooking Blog.



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      Diabetes in China: Epidemiology and Genetic Risk Factors and Their Clinical Utility in Personalized Medication

      By electricdiet / February 22, 2021


      Known T2D Susceptible Loci

      The etiology of T2D is known to have a considerable genetic component. According to estimates, the heritability of T2D ranges from 30 to 70% (15). According to the Framingham Offspring Study, the diabetes risk OR for an individual with one affected parent was 3.4–3.5, and the OR increased to 6.1 when both parents were affected (16). Twin studies have also revealed that the concordance rate was higher in monozygotic twins (0.29–1.00) than in dizygotic twins (0.10–0.43), indicating a significant genetic basis for T2D (17). Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the prevalence of T2D among different ethnic groups. European and Asian populations are mildly and moderately susceptible to T2D, respectively. However, Pima Indians have a very high prevalence of T2D, and approximately 50% of adults above 35 years of age having T2D.

      Over the past two decades, linkage analyses, candidate gene approaches, and large-scale GWAS have successfully identified more than 100 genes that confer susceptibility to T2D among the world’s major ethnic populations (see Fig. 4 for a summary of common T2D loci), most of which were discovered in European populations. However, less than 50% of these European-derived loci have been successfully confirmed in East Asian populations. The studies in Chinese (18,19) investigating these variants discovered in the European populations in the Han Chinese population found that only the variants near PPARG, KCNJ11, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IDE-KIF11-HHEX, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, HNF1B, DUSP9, ZFAND3, FTO, and TCF7L2 were associated with T2D. The failure of the replication study may be due to discrepancies in the allelic frequencies and effect sizes in different ethnic groups. Therefore, there is a need to identify specific genes that are associated with T2D in other ethnic populations.

      Figure 4
      Figure 4

      Summary of diabetes susceptibility loci among major ancestry groups. Indicated are the populations in which the loci were initially detected: Caucasians (European descendants), East Asians, South Asians, and other populations.

      In 2008, the first GWAS of T2D in East Asian populations were concurrently conducted by two independent Japanese groups and confirmed that KCNQ1, which was previously implicated in insulin secretion, was a novel T2D susceptibility locus with the OR ranging from 1.26 to 1.41 (20,21). KCNQ1 encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the voltage-gated K+ channel, which is mainly expressed in the cardiac muscles and pancreas. The association between KCNQ1 and T2D was further confirmed in Korean (22), Chinese (23), and Singaporean (24) populations. Therefore, KCNQ1 is considered the strongest locus for T2D in populations of East Asian ethic origin. Subsequently, additional GWAS have been performed in East Asian populations. In 2010, five new loci, namely, PTPRD, SRR, SPRY2, UBE2E2, and C2CD4A/B, were demonstrated to confer T2D risk in East Asian populations (2527). In 2012, Cho et al. (28) performed a meta-analysis of three-stage GWAS in East Asian populations and identified eight novel T2D-associated loci. These loci were mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6, and ZFAND3 and increased the T2D risk by 8–13%. Subsequently, three new T2D loci were discovered in Han Chinese populations as susceptible loci for T2D in 2013, namely, PAX4 (29), GRK5 (30) and RASGRP1 (30). Notably, the rs10229583 variant, which is located at 7q32 near PAX4 and plays a critical role in the development of pancreatic β-cells, could increase the T2D risk by 18%.

      Although many genetic loci have been shown to confer susceptibility to T2D, the mechanism by which these loci participate in the pathogenesis of T2D remains unknown. Most T2D loci are located near genes that are related to β-cell function, including TCF7L2, WFS1, KCNJ11, HNF1B, IGF2BP2, CDKN2A/B, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKAL1, KCNQ1, THADA, TSPAN8/LGR5, CDC123/CAMK1D, JAZF1, MTNR1B, GCK, PROX1, DGKB/TMEM195, ADCY5, CENTD2, SRR, ST6GAL1, KCNK16, HNF4A, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, GLIS3, ANK1, BCAR1, GRB14, RASGRP1, and TMEM163, whereas PPARG, ADAMTS9, GCKR, IRS1, PTPRD, DUSP9, RBMS1/ITGB6, HMGA2, KLF14, GRB14, ANKRD55, and GRK5 have an impact on the action of insulin, emphasizing the important role of β-cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of T2D.

      In addition, most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the T2D risk are located in introns, but whether these SNPs directly modify gene expression or are involved in linkage disequilibrium with unknown causal variants remains to be investigated. Furthermore, the loci discovered thus far collectively account for less than 15% of the overall estimated genetic heritability. More studies, including trans-ethnic mapping, and the use of new technologies, such as deep sequencing and whole-exome sequencing, are needed to further identify the underlying genetic factors of T2D in Chinese and other populations.

      Clinical Utility of Genetic Information: Prediction of T2D

      The early identification of individuals at a high risk of T2D can prevent or delay the onset of T2D through effective lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. Models based solely on conventional risk factors have achieved only a moderate predictive performance (31). Therefore, T2D risk models incorporating genetic information are needed to increase the predictive performance.

      Numerous studies have constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) to evaluate the predictive ability of current genetic information. The GRS combines information from multiple variants to represent an individual’s genetic predisposition to T2D. Between 2006 and 2016, 38 studies were performed to construct a GRS model and evaluate the performance of the GRS model in predicting the prevalence or incidence of T2D. Of these studies, 17 were case-control or cross-sectional studies, 18 were prospective cohort studies, 2 were nested case-control studies, and 1 was a mixed cohort and case-control study.

      Case-Control and Cross-Sectional Studies.

      Studies exploring the performance of T2D genetic risk models were first conducted in European populations. These studies incorporated 3–38 SNPs and reported that each additional risk allele was associated with a 7–28% increased risk of T2D. In 2009, Hu et al. (19) first constructed a GRS model using 11 SNPs and assessed the predictive effect of this model in a Chinese population (1,523 control vs. 1,359 case subjects). The results showed that the OR for T2D per risk allele was 1.265 (95% CI 1.214–1.318). Similarly, Imamura et al. (32) investigated a GRS model combining 49 SNPs in a Japanese population (1,786 control vs. 2,613 case subjects) and found that individuals with a GRS ≥60 were approximately 10-fold more likely to develop T2D than those with a GRS <46. Thus, a GRS model combining multiple coexisting genetic variants may be useful for identifying individuals at high genetic risk for developing T2D.

      Prospective Studies.

      Genetic risk models have also been useful in predicting incident T2D in prospective studies. In 2013, Andersson et al. (33) genotyped 46 variants and subsequently constructed a GRS model in a Danish population (n = 5,850 at baseline). The risk of incident T2D was increased with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 (95% CI 1.03–1.08) per risk allele during a median follow-up of 11 years. In 2014, another study used 65 and 89 SNPs to construct two GRS models (GRS-1, 65 European-derived loci associated with T2D; GRS-2, GRS-1 combined with 24 fasting plasma glucose–raising SNPs) and explored the contribution of the GRS to the incidence of T2D in 4,075 individuals in the Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) study over a 9-year follow-up period (34). The two GRS models were both significantly associated with an increased incidence of T2D (per allele: GRS-1, HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.10; GRS-2, HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02–1.08).

      However, few studies focusing on the capacity of the GRS to predict the incidence of T2D in East Asian populations have been conducted. In 2013, Kwak et al. (35) constructed a weighted GRS (wGRS) model based on 48 T2D genetic variants in a prospective cohort study involving 395 Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus. After a median follow-up period of 3.8 years, the women with gestational diabetes mellitus who developed diabetes had a significantly higher wGRS than those who did not develop diabetes (9.36 ± 0.92 vs. 8.78 ± 1.07, P < 1.56 × 10−7). Recently, one study (36) genotyped 89 SNPs to determine T2D susceptibility in a Chinese cross-sectional population (n = 6,822) and then selected 40 SNPs that were significantly associated with the diabetes risk (P < 0.05) to construct a wGRS. These authors found that the wGRS could predict the incidence of T2D and impaired glucose regulation in the Cox model (HR 1.129, 95% CI 1.026–1.242) in a Chinese 9-year prospective cohort study (n = 2,495). Moreover, the wGRS predicted blood glucose deterioration due to the changes in function of β-cells (β −0.0480, P = 9.66 × 10−5 and β −0.0303, P = 3.32 × 10−5 for Stumvoll first- and second-phase insulin secretion, respectively).

      Predictive Performance of Genetic Variants Compared With Conventional Clinical Risk Models

      The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) are usually used to assess the discriminative accuracy of an approach. The AUC values range from 0.5 to 1.0, where an AUC of 0.5 represents a lack of discrimination and an AUC of 1 represents perfect discrimination. An AUC ≥0.75 is considered clinically useful. The dominant conventional risk factors, including age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, family history of diabetes, physical activity level, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, can be combined to construct conventional risk factor–based models (CRM). Several studies have compared the predictive capacities of models with and without genetic information. The addition of genetic markers to a CRM could slightly improve the predictive performance. For example, one European study showed that the addition of an 11-SNP GRS to a CRM marginally improved the risk prediction (AUC was 0.74 without and 0.75 with the genetic markers, P < 0.001) in a prospective cohort of 16,000 individuals (37). A meta-analysis (38) consisting of 23 studies investigating the predictive performance of T2D risk models also reported that the AUCs only slightly increased with the addition of genetic information to the CRM (median AUC was increased from 0.78 to 0.79).

      The potential explanation for this phenomenon is that genetic variants may have exerted their effect on the onset of T2D through certain conventional risk factors (39). For example, a family history of T2D, which is a major risk factor included in most CRMs, could capture the genetic information provided by the GRS (39). Moreover, gene–gene and gene–environment interactions also contribute to the diabetes epidemic and should be considered to assess the enhanced predictive capacity of genetic variants.



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      Creamy Cauliflower Soup with Brussels Sprouts

      By electricdiet / February 20, 2021


      This creamy cauliflower soup with Brussels sprouts is a rich, hearty dish that’s easy to prep and so delicious. Plus, it’s packed with vitamins and antioxidants!

      Creamy cauliflower soup with Brussels sprouts in a blue bowl on an orange placemat

      Are you torn between wanting comfort food but also wanting to eat something healthy?

      This creamy cauliflower soup with Brussels sprouts is the best of both worlds! The coconut milk gives the soup a rich, hearty texture, and the vegetables are packed with vitamins and antioxidants. Talk about a win-win!

      Roasting the vegetables really brings out their natural sweetness. It deepens the flavor profile, making this dish truly irresistible.

      After one bite, you might realize that this healthy soup is your new favorite comfort food!

      How to make creamy cauliflower soup with Brussels sprouts

      This simple recipe involves roasting the vegetables and then bringing everything together on the stove.

      Step 1: Preheat the oven to 450°F.

      Step 2: Place the cauliflower florets and Brussels sprouts in a large bowl. Add 3 tablespoons of olive oil and toss until evenly coated, then season with salt and pepper and toss again.

      Step 3: Pour the vegetables onto a baking sheet and arrange so that the Brussels sprouts are cut-side down and the pieces aren’t touching.

      Step 4: Place in the oven and roast, stirring after the 10-minute mark, until the vegetables are tender, about 15 minutes total. Remove from the oven.

      Step 5: While the vegetables are roasting, heat a 3½ quart saucepan over medium heat and add the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil.

      Step 6: Add the onion and sauté until it’s translucent, then add the broth.

      Step 7: Bring everything to a boil, then reduce the heat to low and simmer for about 10 minutes.

      Step 8: Add two-thirds of the roasted vegetables to the saucepan and simmer for a few minutes, stirring occasionally. Remove from heat.

      Step 9: Purée the soup either by using an immersion blender right in the pan or by transferring the mixture to a blender. Stir in the coconut milk and purée again if necessary.

      Step 10: Pour into 4 serving bowls, garnish with remaining roasted vegetables, and serve immediately.

      This soup is so rich and creamy, you’ll be amazed that it’s actually good for you!

      Coconut or low-fat milk

      If you make this recipe with coconut milk, it will be vegan, dairy-free, gluten-free, and paleo-friendly.

      However, if you prefer not to eat the saturated fat found in coconut milk, you can substitute 1 cup of low-fat milk. This will reduce each serving to 228 calories, 16 grams of fat, and 3 grams of saturated fat.

      Keep in mind that this will increase the cholesterol, sugar, and carbs slightly, and the soup will no longer be dairy-free or vegan.

      Storage

      This soup is best served immediately. However, if you do have leftovers, you can store them covered in the refrigerator for 3-4 days.

      If possible, try to store the whole-roasted veggies separately so they don’t become soggy in the soup.

      Closeup of a bowl of cauliflower soup

      Other low carb Brussels sprouts recipes

      Growing up, everyone I knew hated Brussels sprouts. Then one day, someone figured out how to make these mini-cabbages taste delicious, and now they’re one of my favorite vegetables!

      If you love Brussels sprouts as much as I do, here are a few more recipes I think you’ll enjoy:

      When you’ve tried this soup, please don’t forget to let me know how you liked it and rate the recipe in the comments below!

      Recipe Card

      Creamy cauliflower soup

      Creamy Cauliflower Soup with Brussels Sprouts

      This creamy cauliflower soup with Brussels sprouts is a rich, hearty dish that’s easy to prep and so delicious. Plus, it’s packed with vitamins and antioxidants!

      Prep Time:10 minutes

      Cook Time:15 minutes

      Total Time:25 minutes

      Author:Diabetic Foodie

      Servings:4

      Instructions

      • Preheat the oven to 450°F.

      • Place the cauliflower florets and Brussels sprouts in a large bowl. Add 3 tablespoons of olive oil and toss until evenly coated, then season with salt and pepper and toss again.

      • Pour the vegetables onto a baking sheet and arrange so that the Brussels sprouts are cut-side down and the pieces aren’t touching.

      • Place in the oven and roast, stirring after the 10-minute mark, until the vegetables are tender, about 15 minutes total. Remove from the oven.

      • While the vegetables are roasting, heat a 3½ quart saucepan over medium heat and add the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil.

      • Add the onion and sauté until it’s translucent, then add the broth.

      • Bring everything to a boil, then reduce the heat to low and simmer for about 10 minutes.

      • Add two-thirds of the roasted vegetables to the saucepan and simmer for a few minutes, stirring occasionally. Remove from heat.

      • Purée the soup either by using an immersion blender right in the pan or by transferring the mixture to a blender. Stir in the coconut milk and purée again if necessary.

      • Pour into 4 serving bowls, garnish with remaining roasted vegetables, and serve immediately.

      Recipe Notes

      This recipe is for 4 servings of cauliflower and Brussels sprouts soup.
      To reduce the amount of saturated fat, you can substitute the coconut milk for 1 cup of low-fat milk. Keep in mind that the soup will no longer be dairy-free or vegan.
      This dish is best served immediately. If you do have leftovers, they can be stored covered in the refrigerator for 3-4 days.

      Nutrition Info Per Serving

      Nutrition Facts

      Creamy Cauliflower Soup with Brussels Sprouts

      Amount Per Serving (1 bowl)

      Calories 418
      Calories from Fat 328

      % Daily Value*

      Fat 36.4g56%

      Saturated Fat 15.5g97%

      Trans Fat 0g

      Polyunsaturated Fat 1.5g

      Monounsaturated Fat 9.8g

      Cholesterol 0mg0%

      Sodium 510.6mg22%

      Potassium 486.4mg14%

      Carbohydrates 18.6g6%

      Fiber 4.6g19%

      Sugar 6.7g7%

      Protein 6.2g12%

      Net carbs 14g

      * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.

      Course: Soups and Stews

      Cuisine: American

      Diet: Diabetic

      Keyword: cauliflower soup, easy dinner recipes



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      Mapo Tofu – My Bizzy Kitchen

      By electricdiet / February 18, 2021





      Mapo Tofu – My Bizzy Kitchen




































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      Raspberry Smoothie (Low-Carb) | Diabetes Strong

      By electricdiet / February 16, 2021


      Looking for a low-carb, vegan, on-the-go breakfast? This raspberry smoothie only takes minutes to prep and is sure to energize your morning!

      Smoothie in glass with straw, topped with fresh raspberries

      There’s nothing I love more than starting my day with a healthy smoothie. I look for recipes that are high in protein and low in sugar to give me sustained energy without a mid-morning crash.

      This raspberry smoothie is a perfect example and one of my favorite ways to jump start my day! Two powerhouse ingredients, coconut milk and tofu, give it an irresistible creaminess along with plenty of protein and healthy fats.

      Top it off with raspberries, mint leaves, a little low-carb sweetener, and some vanilla, and you have yourself a super refreshing treat. I can’t think of a better way to energize my morning.

      How to make a raspberry smoothie

      This delicious, healthy, satisfying smoothie comes together in less than five minutes. Just add the ingredients, blend, and serve!

      Ingredients in separate ramekins, as seen from above

      Step 1: Place the raspberries, mint, stevia, vanilla, and coconut milk in your blender.

      Ingredients in blender, as seen from above

      Step 2: Blend until completely smooth. Add the ice and blend until smooth again.

      Step 3: Lastly, add the silken tofu and blend on high until completely blended.

      Smoothie ingredients blended in a blender, as seen from above

      Step 4: Pour, garnish with fresh raspberries and mint, if preferred, and serve.

      Smoothie in a glass jar with a straw, garnished with fresh raspberries

      You can sip your smoothie at home or take it on-the-go. It’s perfect no matter what you have planned for the day!

      Variations for this recipe

      One of my favorite parts about smoothies is how easy they are to customize. There are so many ways to get creative!

      Looking to reduce the calories and fat content? Swap out some or all of the coconut milk for another low-carb plant-based milk like almond, macadamia, or hemp. If you aren’t worried about carbs, you could use oat milk as well.

      Want to add even more protein? Add a scoop of pea protein powder to give yourself an extra boost.

      Craving a different flavor? Use blueberries, strawberries, or mixed berries in your smoothie.

      Feel free to have some fun with this yummy and versatile recipe!

      Storage

      This smoothie is best served fresh. I would not recommend storing it in the refrigerator.

      If you only want one serving, simply halve the ingredients to blend up one smoothie. Then, you can save the rest of the ingredients for a delicious vegan smoothie to enjoy later in the week!

      Raspberry smoothie in a glass jar on a wooden board, topped with fresh strawberries

      Other low-carb smoothies

      Looking for a few more low-carb smoothie options? There are so many yummy, diabetes-friendly options to energize your morning!

      Here are a few of my favorite smoothie recipes I know you’ll love:

      You can also check out my roundup of low-carb smoothie recipes for more ways to kick-start your day.

      When you’ve tried this smoothie, please don’t forget to let me know how you liked it and rate the recipe in the comments below!

      Recipe Card

      Raspberry Smoothie (Low-Carb)

      Looking for a low-carb, vegan, on-the-go breakfast? This raspberry smoothie only takes minutes to prep and is sure to energize your morning!

      Prep Time:5 minutes

      Total Time:5 minutes

      Servings:2

      Raspberry smoothie in a glass on a wooden board, topped with fresh raspberries

      Instructions

      • Place the raspberries, mint, stevia, vanilla and coconut milk in your blender.

      • Blend until completely smooth. Add the ice and blend until smooth again.

      • Lastly add the silken tofu and blend on high until completely blended.

      • Pour, garnish with fresh raspberries and mint, if preferred, and serve.

      Recipe Notes

      This recipe is for 2 smoothies.
      If you only want 1 serving, halve the ingredients. Storing this smoothie in the refrigerator is not recommend.

      Nutrition Info Per Serving

      Nutrition Facts

      Raspberry Smoothie (Low-Carb)

      Amount Per Serving (1 smoothie)

      Calories 135
      Calories from Fat 51

      % Daily Value*

      Fat 5.7g9%

      Saturated Fat 2g10%

      Trans Fat 0g

      Polyunsaturated Fat 0.2g

      Monounsaturated Fat 0g

      Cholesterol 0mg0%

      Sodium 21.1mg1%

      Potassium 96mg3%

      Carbohydrates 12.8g4%

      Fiber 4.5g18%

      Sugar 4.1g5%

      Protein 9.8g20%

      Net carbs 8.3g

      * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.

      Course: Breakfast, Smoothie

      Cuisine: American

      Keyword: dairy-free, gluten-free, smoothie, vegan, vegan smoothie



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